1. Eat healthy
Reduce sodium intake and increase potassium – rich foods to help lower blood pressure. WHO recommends that the daily intake of salt should be less than 5g, and elderly patients with hypertension should limit salt moderately. Encourage older adults to eat a variety of fresh vegetables, fruits, fish, soy products, whole grains, skim milk, and other foods rich in potassium, calcium, dietary fiber, and polyunsaturated fatty acids.
2. Exercise regularly
Reasonable aerobic exercise can effectively reduce blood pressure in elderly patients with hypertension and prehypertension. It is recommended that the elderly take appropriate regular exercise, no less than 5 days a week, and no less than 30 minutes of aerobic physical exercise every day, such as walking, jogging and swimming. Vigorous exercise is not recommended for the elderly.
3.Stop smoking and limit alcohol
Quitting smoking reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease and lung disease. The elderly should limit alcohol intake, <25g for men and <15g for women. Liquor, wine (or rice wine) or beer consumption should be less than 50ml, 100ml and 300ml, respectively.
4. Maintain your ideal weight
Elderly patients with hypertension who are overweight or obese may have appropriate energy intake control and increased physical activity. Maintaining an ideal body weight (bmi 20.0-23.9kg/m2) and correcting abdominal obesity (male abdominal circumference ≥90cm and female abdominal circumference ≥85cm) can help control blood pressure and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. But the elderly should pay attention to avoid too fast, excessive weight loss.
5. Sleep better
Duration and quality of sleep are related to the increase of blood pressure and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Ensuring adequate sleep and improving the quality of sleep are important for improving the quality of life, controlling blood pressure and reducing the complications of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.
Blood pressure tends to vary with the seasons. The old people’s ability to adapt to the cold and the ability to control the blood pressure is poor, often appear seasonal blood pressure fluctuation phenomenon. Keep the room warm and ventilated regularly. Sudden cold and low temperature in strong wind reduce outdoor; Add appropriate clothing to avoid large fluctuations in blood pressure.