Research in the journal Science shows that the “alphabet” of life has welcomed four new members, and it has changed from four to eight!
The material basis of life – the gene, and the gene is composed of four natural bases, their English codes are “C”, “G”, “T” and “A”, respectively. The corresponding Chinese names are cytosine, guanine, Thymine, adenine, the pairing rule is C with G, T with A, C and G are connected by 3 hydrogen bonds, and there are 2 hydrogen bonds between T and A.
From simple single-celled organisms to primates, the genetic code of living organisms is recorded and transmitted by ATCG, such as the same mysterious life codebook, which guides the synthesis and functional regulation of proteins, including our human life and death, height and height. Fat and thin, even our personality and health, the genes are silently guided, and together with environmental and behavioral factors determine our health.
These four bases are arranged in different combinations, and through DNA methylation, acetylation modification, splicing translation of DNA sequences, and post-translational modification, the base sequence of the DNA that does not encode the protein is also involved in the regulation of gene expression, corresponding There have been many changes.A big thing happened recently, that is, scientists have artificially synthesized four new bases, so that there are as many as eight bases.American scientist Steven A. Benner named the four new members “Z”, “P”, “S” and “B”. Their pairing principle is Z with P and S with B, all connected by three hydrogen bonds.
The DNA structure of these four new bases must be stable, thermodynamic stability is predictable, and DNA double helix can be formed, which can be transcribed into RNA.It first showed DNA with eight different base letters, but more in-depth research is needed.